Objects as History-The Heretic King (Research Paper):

THE HERETIC KING

 INTRODUCTION:

 egypt-4

Fig.1-Bust of Akhenaten.[1]

Akhenaten was the tenth King of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, He ruled for seventeen years and died maybe in 1336BC or 1334 BC. Originally born as Amenhotep IV, he was the younger son of Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiyee. Akhenaten is remembered for dramatically converting ancient religious traditions of Egypt. He abandoned traditional polytheism in Egypt and introduced the worship of only one god, Aten.[2] Akhenaten claimed, “There is only one god, my father. I can approach him by day, by night.”[3] Why did he initiate this drastic shift from polytheism to monotheism? How did this change, have an impact on Egyptian society?

A BRIEF BACKGROUND OF THE RELIGIOUS TRANSFORMATION AND ITS IMPACT:

Originally, the throne was not designated to Amenhotep IV. However, after the death of his father and his older brother, Thutmose, Amenhotep IV took over his father’s throne.[4]Amenhotep IV inherited a strong, peaceful and successful nation.[5]

egypt-5

Fig.2-Amun.[6]

egypt-6

Fig.3-Akhenaten making an offering to Aten.[7]

He reigned as Amenhotep IV only for five years. During this time period, he followed all the policies laid down by his father as well as the religious traditions of Egypt. However, in the fifth year of his reign, he went through a major religious transformation wherein, he abandoned the worship of Amun and proclaimed himself the living incarnation of a supreme, all powerful deity, known as Aten. “Aten was a being who represented the spirit of the sun, and the actual solar disk. He was depicted as a disk with rays reaching the Earth. At the end of the rays were human hands.”[8] He made the Aten, the center of Egypt’s religious life and he made sure that the names of Amun and his consort Mut be erased from monuments and documents throughout the Egyptian empire. Aten wasn’t new to Egyptian religion. However, making Aten the focus of religious life was something entirely new for the people of Egypt. Akhenaten even went to the extent of replacing the plural , “gods” with the singular “god”.[9]

It was during this period that he changed his name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaten to lay emphasis on his devotion to Aten, the supreme deity of his own making. Amenhotep meant “Amun is pleased” while Akhenaten meant “Servant of Aten”. By changing his name, Akhenaten, formally, declared his new religion.[10] During the course of the next twelve years of his reign, he became very infamous among his subjects, due to his eradication of traditional Egyptian practices. [11]

egypt-7

Fig.4-Goblet Inscribed with the Names of King Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti.[12]

Akhenaten lived during the peak of Egypt’s prosperity. Egypt was rich, powerful and secure. Workers built numerous temples along the River Nile, in order to pay homage to the Gods. They believed that by doing so, the Gods would be pleased and so Egypt would continue to prosper.[13] Religion was the business of that time and many earned their living connected to the worship of gods.  At the beginning of his reign, the god Amun of Thebes was the principal deity of the time and his priests had become extremely powerful. Through the God, Amun they not only controlled the entire country but also the king.” The divinity of kingship now included a claim to being a son of Amun.” [14] The priesthood of the kingdom of Amenhotep III revolved around the god Amun and it was steadily growing in power. By the time Amenhotep IV inherited his father’s throne, the priests of Amun were almost at an equal standing with the royal family, in terms of wealth, power and influence. Also, by this time the Cult of Amun owned more land than the Pharaoh.[15]

When the High Priest of Amun died, Amenhotep III, did not promote the next High Priest, as was expected. Instead, he neatly sidestepped the priesthood and moved towards a separation of State and religion. [16]

The young pharaoh, Amenhotep IV, initially worshipped Amun of Thebes as well as Re-Harakhte, the sun god. Akhenaten had begun work on a temple dedicated to Re-Harakhte. But soon, he abandoned work on that temple and began working on a new one dedicated to Aten.[17] This temple, called “Rud-Menu” was built on the perimeter of the famous Temple of Amun at Karnak, dedicated to Aten rather than Amun.[18] He also built a palace complex called Gempaaten. This was where the royal family lived during the winter months. Gempaaten meant “the Aten is found in the mansion of Aten”. However, the co-extistence of the two cults could not last long. Due to this reason, he banned the Cult of Amun, shut down his temples and took over the revenues collected by the cult. Akhenaten didn’t stop at that, he sent his officials to destroy Amun’s statues and his worship sites. Because Akhenaten’s actions, went completely against Egyptian religious beliefs and customs, opposition arose against him. The estates of all the great temples of Thebes, Memphis as well as Heliopolis began reverting to the throne.[19]

egypt-8Fig.5-Amarna.[20]

In the fifth or sixth year of his reign, he constructed a new capital city called Akhetaten, which meant the “Horizon of Aten”. This new capital was built in modern day Amarna. Amarna was chosen, as this place was not associated with any other god[21] and so , it was considered the perfect place to establish the new religion. This location was also chosen as its sunrise had a symbolic meaning.[22] So, “Akhenaten and Nefertiti, left Thebes behind, and under the guidance of Aten, they moved their family to a site known as El-Amarna. This place was right in the middle of the desert. Amarna had elegant palaces, statues of Pharaoh

egypt-9

Fig.6-Temple of the Aten.[23]

 

Akhenaten, a royal road running through the center of the town and good housing throughout the city. There was a bridge which connected the palace to the temple area. Akhenaten and Nefertiti would appear before the people on the balcony, which was called the Window of Appearances and distribute gold ornaments and other gifts among the people.[24]

It is believed that Akhenaten was the family outcast. Akhenaten suffered from a disease called Marfan Syndrome. This is a genetic defect that damages the body’s connective tissue. Symptoms of this disease include, a long head, neck arms and feet, short torso, pot belly,  distinct collarbones, heavy thighs and poor muscle tone. The people who inherit this disease are often abnormally tall and have weakened aortas that are likely to rupture. These people can die at a very early age. Maybe because of his disease, Akhenaten was always ignored by the rest of his family. He did not receive any honors. He never appeared in any of the portraits and was never taken to public events. He was never shown with his family, nor was he mentioned in the monuments. It was as though, the God Amun had excluded him. Not only, was he rejected by his family, but also by the rest of the world. This was the reason why Akhenaten, rejected the old Gods of Thebes. According to him, they were never a part of his childhood.[25] Him being shunned as a child would one day decide the destiny of Egypt.

Another reason behind Akhenaten’s drastic decision to shift from polytheism to monotheism could be his vision. It is believed that one day, “Akhenaten had a vision, wherein he saw a sun disc between two mountains. He felt that God was guiding him to make change. He was shown the God, Aten, as the Sun Disk – the Light. He felt guided by Aten to build a city between the two mountains.”

Maybe the reason behind him replacing the God might be a move aimed at lessening the political power of the Priests. Now, the pharaoh, not the priesthood  was the sole link between the people and Aten which ended the power of the temples.[26]

egypt-1

Fig.7-Stela of Akhenaten and Nefertiti worshipping Aten with their children.[27]

This shrine stela which belongs to the early part of the Amarna period depicts Akhenaten, his wife, Neferititi and their children, Princess Meretaten, Princess Mekeaten, and Princess Ankhesenpaaten worshiping the Aten, together as a family.  The stela depicts, Akhenaten giving Meretaten a kiss, whereas Mekeaten plays on Neferititis’s lap and gazes up lovingly. This indicates that Akhenaten had a very intimate family life. The stela, relates to the Aten’s religious concept of creation. The king and queen are viewed as the prehistoric first couple. “At the top of the composition, the sun god, Aten, represented by a raised circle, extends his life giving rays to the Royal Family.”

Nefertiti also had an important role in Egyptian royal rule as well as the religious worship. During the first few years of her reign, in order to officially showcase her love for Aten and her support for her husband’s decision, she changed her name from Nefertiti to Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti. While Nefertiti meant “The beautiful one has arrived”, Nefernefruaten-Nefertiti meant “Perfect One of the Aten’s Perfection”.

egypt-2

Fig.8-Limestone relief found at the Royal Tomb of Amarna.[28]

 

“This limestone relief, found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna depicts, Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their two daughters making an offering to the sun-disk Aten. Akhenaten and Nefertiti carry flowers to be laid on the table beneath the life giving rays of the Aten.” [29]

The old tribal deites of Egypt, had encouraged peace and harmony. This led to the development of one of the greatest ancient cultures of the world. Because, the ancient Egyptians, followed polytheism, it encouraged them to have a world view. During this time, religious intolerance was not even considered an issue.  On the other hand, a monotheistic belief system, encourages the belief that in order for it to be right, other belief systems must necessarily be wrong. This in turn encourages intolerance of other beliefs and their suppression. Because Egypt now followed a monotheistic belief system, the names of the god Amun and the other gods were chiseled from monuments throughout Egypt. Their temples were closed, and the old religious practices were now completely abandoned.[30]

The desertion of their god, Amun as well the religious capital of Egypt by Akhenaten, got the priests worried.[31] The priests of Amun who had the time and the resources hid statuary and texts from the palace guards who were sent to destroy them. They then abandoned their temple complexes. Akhenaten appointed new priests, or simply forced the old priests of Amun into the service of Aten. He also proclaimed himself and his queen, Neferititi, Gods.[32]

Egypt’s resources were now flowing out of all the established cities and into the desert, in Egypt’s new capital, Akhetaten. People who earned their living based on the old religions, such as wood carvers were now out of a job. The Egyptian people were worried about their afterlife as they thought that the old gods would get angered if they stopped worshipping them.

Akhenaten wasn’t realistic. Although he had found his God, the people of his kingdom had not. They were used to seeing Egyptian gods who would usually be carved in stone. They were depicted with beautiful bodies and many gods had the heads of animals. Aten, was represented by a sun-disc. This was too much of an abstraction for the people of Egypt. They also wondered why Aten, shed its rays only on the royal family and not the commoners. [33] Also, Aten was worshipped in the open, while the old traditional gods of Egypt were usually worshipped in a sanctuary. “The funerary religion of Osiris was dropped, and Akhenaten became the source of blessings for people after death.”[34]

egypt-3

Fig.10- Unknown. Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353-1335 BCE. From the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, Sandstone.[35]

Egyptian art also got influenced because of the drastic change that was initiated by Akhenaten. The images of Amun and the other gods were destroyed. They were now replaced by images of Aten, the sun disc. The Egyptian pharaoh was no longer depicted as someone who was strong and muscular. Akhenaten was depicted with an elongated head, fingers, toes and wide hips. This was because of the ill effects of Marfan Synndrome. It became fashionable to depict the entire royal family in this way. Because of this, the artists of Amarna got a new freedom to show scenes from the real life of the Pharaoh. This had never been done before.

egypt

Fig.11-A Letter from Tushratta of Mitanni.[36]

 

“Akhenaten lived his dream in Amarna for ten years as conditions grew worse in Egypt.” [37] Akhenaten was so involved with transforming Egyptian religious belief system from polytheistic to monotheistic, that he didn’t pay much attention to the real problems and issues that the people of Egypt faced. Akhenaten ignored and neglected foreign policy. As a result, Egypt’s captured territories were taken back. [38] He paid little attention to the army and navy. Internal taxes were looted by the local officials.[39] The Amarna Letters were a collection of diplomatic letters between various states and Egypt, written on clay tablets. They were discovered in the city of Akhetaten. They show the discontent of the army commanders and high commissioners in Palestine and Syria.[40] They also suggest that Akhenaten had withdrawn from the world and Egypt was no longer taking part in world events. There are a number of letters from governors and kings of subject nations begging for monetary help. They felt abandoned by their powerful friend.[41] He focused more on poetry, religion and nature, rather than on ruling his empire. [42]Akhenaten’s “lack of enthusiasm for the practical duties of kingship was detrimental to Egypt’s Imperial interests” and it made him unpopular among his subjects.

“When Akhenaten died, he was briefly succeeded by Smenkhkare, and then by Tutankhaten, who later changed his name to Tutankhamun, dropping the Aten and embracing Amun.”[43]His successors in turn destroyed temples and monuments built by Akhenaten. [44]The city of Akhetaten was abandoned and worship of the Amun was reestablished. Akhenaten’s name and his story was erased from Egyptian history and he was referred to as the “Heretic King”.[45]

CONCLUSION:

There are many reasons because of which Akhenaten may have initiated this major drift from polytheism to monotheism. The priesthood of Amun had become extremely powerful. Their wealth and influence was almost at par with that of the royal family. The king was controlled by the priests. Akhenaten may have seen this as a threat and initiated this change as a bold political move in order to separate State and religion. Due to his disease, Akhenaten was shunned by his family and the rest of the world.  He was never seen with his family, nor was he mentioned in the monuments. He felt excluded. Because of this he felt as though the old gods of Thebes, especially Amun had done him grave injustice. According to him the old gods of Thebes had no part to play in his childhood. Lastly, Akhenaten is said to have had a vision wherein he saw Aten, the Sun Disk. He felt that Aten was guiding him to make a difference.

This change had a major impact on Egyptian society. Because Akhenaten was focused on Egypt’s religious transformation, he compromised on solving the real issues that his subjects faced. Due to his ignorance of foreign policy, Egypt’s captured territories were taken back. His allies began losing confidence in him and trade treaties with other States were now considered invalid. Local officials, began looting the taxes. He didn’t help his allies when they asked for his help. This made them doubt his allegiance even more. Egypt no longer took part in global events. Akhenaten enforced monotheistic belief, he was intolerant towards other religions and suppressed old religious beliefs. Because of this most of his subjects were discontent and Egyptians now lacked a world view. The change had a drastic effect on Egyptian Art. Artists, now had the freedom to depict scenes from the real life of the Pharaoh. This had never been done before. Due to the shift of the capital to Amarna, resources were now, flowing out of all the major established cities and into the desert. People who earned a living based on the old religions, now did not have a job. The people of Egypt were worried about their afterlife as they no longer worshipped the old gods.

 

[1] J. Hill, “Bust of Akhenaten,” digital image, Ancient Egypt Online, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html.

[2] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[3] “20 Facts About Akhenaten,” Ancient Code, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancient-code.com/20-facts-about-akhenathen/.

[4] ibid

[5]J. Hill, “Ancient Egypt Pharaohs: Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV),” Ancient Egypt Online, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html.

[6] Laura Sinpetru, “Amun,” digital image, Softpedia, March 4, 2015, accessed November 29, 2016, http://news.softpedia.com/news/Tomb-Unearthed-in-Egypt-Belongs-to-the-Gatekeeper-of-the-God-Amun-474848.shtml.

[7] “Akhenaten Making an Offering to Aten,” digital image, This Hollow Earth, September 19, 2011, accessed November 29, 2016, https://thishollowearth.wordpress.com/2011/09/19/god-of-the-week-aten/.

[8] “Ancient Egypt: the Mythology – Aten,” Ancient Egypt: the Mythology and Egyptian Myths, last modified July 8, 2014, http://www.egyptianmyths.net/aten.htm.

[9] Owen Jarus, “Akhenaten: Egyptian Pharaoh, Nefertiti’s Husband, Tut’s Father,” Live Science, last modified August 30, 2013, http://www.livescience.com/39349-akhenaten.html.

[10] Mark Millmore, “Akhenaten,” Discovering Ancient Egypt, accessed November 29, 2016, http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.

[11] Joshua J. Mark, “Akhenaten,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified April 17, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.

[12] Marsha Hill, “Goblet Inscribed with the Names of King Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti,” digital image, Met Museum, November 2014, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/amar/hd_amar.htm.

[13] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[14] Ted Loukes, “Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King,” Ancient Origins, last modified January 27, 2016, http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/pharaoh-akhenaten-different-view-heretic-king-005249.

[15] Joshua J. Mark, “Akhenaten,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified April 17, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.

[16] Ted Loukes, “Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King,” Ancient Origins, last modified January 27, 2016, http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/pharaoh-akhenaten-different-view-heretic-king-005249.

[17] Mark Millmore, “Akhenaten,” Discovering Ancient Egypt, accessed November 29, 2016, http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.

[18] Katherine Stange, “Akhenaten – The Glory of the Aten,” KateStange.net, last modified March 1, 2000, http://katherinestange.com/egypt/akhenaten.htm.

[19] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[20] “Amarna,” digital image, Crystalinks, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[21] J. Hill, “Ancient Egypt Pharaohs: Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV),” Ancient Egypt Online, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html.

[22] Owen Jarus, “Akhenaten: Egyptian Pharaoh, Nefertiti’s Husband, Tut’s Father,” Live Science, last modified August 30, 2013, http://www.livescience.com/39349-akhenaten.html.

[23] “Temple of the Aten,” digital image, Crystalinks, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[24] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[25] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[26] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[27] “Stela of Akhenaten and Nefertiti Worshipping Aten with Their Children,” digital image, Crystalinks, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[28] “Limestone Relief Found at the Royal Tomb of Amarna,” digital image, Crystalinks, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[29] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[30] Joshua J. Mark, “Akhenaten,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified April 17, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.

[31] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html

[32] Joshua J. Mark, “Akhenaten,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified April 17, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.

[33] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html

[34] Mark Millmore, “Akhenaten,” Discovering Ancient Egypt, accessed November 29, 2016, http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.

[35] Ryan Stone, Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353-1335 BCE. From the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, Sandstone., digital image, Ancient Origins, January 20, 2015, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/art-amarna-akhenaten-and-his-life-under-sun-002587.

[36] Paul Sundberg, “A Letter from Tushratta of Mitani,” digital image, Ancient Texts Relating to the Bible, accessed November 29, 2016, http://wsrp.usc.edu/educational_site/ancient_texts/elamarna.shtml.

[37] “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten,” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten, , accessed November 28, 2016, http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.

[38] Katherine Stange, “Akhenaten – The Glory of the Aten,” KateStange.net, last modified March 1, 2000, http://katherinestange.com/egypt/akhenaten.htm.

[39] Mark Millmore, “Akhenaten,” Discovering Ancient Egypt, accessed November 29, 2016, http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.

[40]ibid

[41] J. Hill, “Ancient Egypt Pharaohs: Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV),” Ancient Egypt Online, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html.

[42] Ted Loukes, “Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King,” Ancient Origins, last modified January 27, 2016, http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/pharaoh-akhenaten-different-view-heretic-king-005249.

[43] Mark Millmore, “Akhenaten,” Discovering Ancient Egypt, accessed November 29, 2016, http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.

[44] Joshua J. Mark, “Akhenaten,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, last modified April 17, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.

[45] Katherine Stange, “Akhenaten – The Glory of the Aten,” KateStange.net, last modified March 1, 2000, http://katherinestange.com/egypt/akhenaten.htm.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

  1. Hill, J. “Bust of Akhenaten.” Digital image. Ancient Egypt Online. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html.
  2. “Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten.” Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt – Akhenaten. Accessed November 28, 2016. http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.
  3. Hill, J. “Ancient Egypt Pharaohs: Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV).” Ancient Egypt Online. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html
  4. “20 Facts About Akhenaten.” Ancient Code. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.ancient-code.com/20-facts-about-akhenathen/.
  5. “Amenhotep: What Is The Meaning Of The Name Amenhotep? Analysis Numerology Origin.” What is the Meaning of Name?. Accessed November 29, 2016. https://www.whatisthemeaningofname.com/what-is-the-meaning-of-the-name-amenhotep-14853/.
  6. Mark, Joshua J. “Akhenaten.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified April 17, 2014. http://www.ancient.eu/Akhenaten/.
  7. Millmore, Mark. “Akhenaten.” Discovering Ancient Egypt. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-kings-queens/akhenaten/.
  8. Stange, Katherine. “Akhenaten – The Glory of the Aten.” KateStange.net. Last modified March 1, 2000. http://katherinestange.com/egypt/akhenaten.htm.
  9. Loukes, Ted. “Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King.” Ancient Origins. Last modified January 27, 2016. http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/pharaoh-akhenaten-different-view-heretic-king-005249.
  10. Sinpetru, Laura. “Amun.” Digital image. Softpedia. March 4, 2015. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://news.softpedia.com/news/Tomb-Unearthed-in-Egypt-Belongs-to-the-Gatekeeper-of-the-God-Amun-474848.shtml.
  11. “Akhenaten Making an Offering to Aten.” Digital image. This Hollow Earth. September 19, 2011. Accessed November 29, 2016. https://thishollowearth.wordpress.com/2011/09/19/god-of-the-week-aten/.
  12. Hill, Marsha. “Goblet Inscribed with the Names of King Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti.” Digital image. Met Museum. November 2014. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/amar/hd_amar.htm.
  13. “Amarna.” Digital image. Crystalinks. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.
  14. “Temple of the Aten.” Digital image. Crystalinks. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.
  15. “Akhenaten and Nefertiti Worshipping Aten with Their Children.” Digital image. Crystalinks. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html
  16. “Limestone Relief Found at the Royal Tomb of Amarna.” Digital image. Crystalinks. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.crystalinks.com/akhenaten.html.
  17. Stone, Ryan. Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353-1335 BCE. From the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, Sandstone. Digital image. Ancient Origins. January 20, 2015. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/art-amarna-akhenaten-and-his-life-under-sun-002587.
  18. “Ancient Egypt: the Mythology – Aten.” Ancient Egypt: the Mythology and Egyptian Myths. Last modified July 8, 2014. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/aten.htm.
  19. Jarus, Owen. “Akhenaten: Egyptian Pharaoh, Nefertiti’s Husband, Tut’s Father.” Live Science. Last modified August 30, 2013. http://www.livescience.com/39349-akhenaten.html.
  20. Sundberg, Paul. “A Letter from Tushratta of Mitani.” Digital image. Ancient Texts Relating to the Bible. Accessed November 29, 2016. http://wsrp.usc.edu/educational_site/ancient_texts/elamarna.shtml.

 

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